International Wine and Spirits Research (IWSR) has published a study indicating that global beverage alcohol sales decreased by 1.3% in 2016, driven primarily by decreases in beer and cider consumption (1.8% and 1.5% respectively). Global wine sales remain relatively flat, down 0.1% and spirits consumption grew 0.3%. IWSR analysts have predicted that alcohol consumption will increase by 0.8% over the next five years despite this negative trend, mainly due to increasing sales of whisky, ready-to-drink alcohol beverages (RTDs), sparkling wines, and increasing beer sales in Asian and sub- Saharan African markets. According to the analysts, economic growth usually correlates with increased alcohol consumption. However, despite several major economies including China, Russia and Brazil facing an economic slowdown or recession, Beer sales fell 4.2% in China, 5.3% in Brazil and 7.8% in Russia.