In the publication Lifestyle in Heart Health and Disease, Ichiro Wakabayashi contributes a chapter on the relationship of alcohol consumption with risks for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in men and women.
Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This effect of alcohol, in addition to its HDL-cholesterolelevating and blood-coagulation-inhibiting actions, contributes to a lower risk of coronary heart disease in drinkers than in non drinkers. The inhibitory effect of alcohol on diabetes is due to increased insulin sensitivity through elevation of adiponectin and leptin expression in adipocytes. However, there is a possibility that the alcohol-diabetes association is modified by sex, adiposity, and race and/or ethnicity. Glycemic status is also inversely associated with alcohol consumption. The results of previous studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and obesity, a major risk factor of type 2 diabetes, are inconsistent, and the relationship may be influenced by age, sex, beverage type, drinking frequency, and drinking pattern.
There are adiposity-related indexes, such as lipid accumulation product (LAP) and cardio metabolic index (CMI), for discriminating diabetes. LAP and CMI show J- and U-shaped relationships, respectively, with alcohol intake.
Source: Relationships of Alcohol Consumption With Risks for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women. Ichiro Wakabayashi. Lifestyle in Heart Health and Disease. 2018, Pages 213–221.