The Mediterranean diet has long been associated with low cardiovascular disease risk in adult population. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies and clinical trials assessed the effect of a Mediterranean diet, which includes moderate alcohol intake, on metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as its components.
The authors conducted a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of epidemiological studies and randomised controlled trials. 50 original research studies (35 clinical trials, 2 prospective and 13 cross-sectional), with 534,906 participants, were included in the analysis.
The combined effect of prospective studies and clinical trials showed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of MS (log hazard ratio: –0.69). Additionally, results from clinical studies revealed the protective role of the Mediterranean diet on components of MS, like waist circumference (–0.42 cm), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.17 mg/dl, triglycerides (–6.14 mg/dl), systolic (–2.35 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (–1.58 mm Hg), and glucose (–3.89 mg/dl).
The authors maintain that the results are of considerable public health importance, because this dietary pattern can be easily adopted by all population groups and various cultures and cost-effectively serve for primary and secondary prevention of the MS and its individual components.
Source: The Effect of Mediterranean Diet on Metabolic Syndrome and its Components A Meta-Analysis of 50 Studies and 534,906 Individuals Christina-Maria Kastorini, MSc*, Haralampos J. Milionis, MD, PhD, Katherine Esposito, MD, PhD, Dario Giugliano, MD, PhD, John A. Goudevenos, MD, PhD and Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos, PhD