A new study led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) has found that heavy drinkers, men who consume an average of three or more alcoholic beverages per day, are nearly 45 percent more likely to suffer an ischemic stroke compared with non drinkers. The study also found that while light and moderate drinkers appear to be at neither greater risk nor greater advantage than abstainers when it comes to ischemic stroke, the frequency with which they consume alcohol may modestly influence their risk.
The findings help shed light on a subject that has been the source of some confusion, and reinforce the importance of what the authors call “drinking patterns,” the number of days per week that alcohol is consumed and the amount consumed on drinking days.
“In this study, the participants who were at lowest risk for stroke were the men who consumed one or two drinks on three to four days of the week,” says lead author Kenneth Mukamal, MD, MPH, a general internist at BIDMC and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School “The importance of drinking pattern for stroke risk parallels our previous findings among this same group of men regarding alcohol consumption and the risk of developing diabetes and coronary heart disease. Among all three types of disease, the lowest risk seems to occur when consumption is limited to one or, at most, two drinks, approximately every other day, with little benefit shown above three to four drinking days per week.”
During the course of the 14-year study the authors followed 38,156 participants who are part of the HSPH-based Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Beginning in 1986 and continuing every four years thereafter until 2000, the male participants, who ranged in age from 40 to 75, responded to a detailed questionnaire regarding diet and medical history, including alcohol consumption.
The researchers examined the following factors to gauge the influence of alcohol consumption on the risk for ischemic stroke: average amount of alcohol consumed; drinking patterns (number of days per week alcohol was consumed); and type of beverage consumed (beer, red wine, white wine, or spirits). They also looked at the incidence of both subtypes of ischemic stroke - thrombotic and embolic. During the course of the study, they confirmed 412 cases of ischemic stroke among the study participants.
Their findings showed that men whose average alcohol intake was three or more drinks per day had a 42 percent higher risk of ischemic stroke (particularly embolic stroke) than did abstainers. This finding, says Mukamal, may be attributable to alcohol’s association with both high blood pressure and atrial fibrillation. The light and moderate drinkers who consumed alcohol three to four days per week had a modest 32 percent lower stroke risk than did nondrinkers. “Compared with other types of alcohol, red wine was associated with a step-wise lower risk of ischemic stroke,” according to Mukamal. “This is curious, because among this population of men, red wine is not linked to a lower risk of heart disease any more than any other type of alcohol, so it’s unclear why this would be the case with stroke.” He adds that further research will be needed to help clarify this finding.
Source: Mukamal KJ et al. Alcohol and Risk for Ischemic Stroke in Men: The Role of Drinking Patterns and Usual Beverage. Annals of Internal Medicine 2005;142:11-9.