A Japanese study suggests that social support might enhance the cardiovascular health benefits of light-to-moderate drinking.
Heavy drinking increases the risk of stroke, but studies have linked light-to-moderate drinking with a reduced risk of ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. Other research has found that people with higher levels of social support have a reduced risk of death and cardiovascular disease.
In the new study, researchers looked at alcohol consumption, social support and risk of cardiovascular disease in more than 19,000 men, ages 40 to 69.
“We found the reduced risks of total stroke, ischemic stroke and total cardiovascular disease associated with light-to-moderate drinking were more pronounced in men with high social support, probably due to avoidance of unhealthy behaviours and enhancement of stress buffering,” explained Hiroyasu Iso, a professor of public health at Osaka University and the study’s corresponding author.
“In our study, compared with light-to-moderate drinkers with high social support, those with low social support had more unhealthy lifestyles such as physical inactivity, no job and fewer opportunities for medical checkups,” he added.
Mental stress also could be a pathway by which poor social support may lead to cardiovascular disease. Mental stress activates neuro-endocrine components, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis and autonomic nervous system, which lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
The study was the first to examine whether psychosocial factors modify the association between alcohol consumption and risks of stroke and coronary heart disease. But the beneficial effect, Iso cautioned, is limited to light-to-moderate drinking.
“Heavy drinking is risky irrespective of social support level,” he said. “We believe that this also holds for other ethnic populations.” The 19,356 middle-age and older men in the study were all Japanese.
Source: Results will be published in the June issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.