|An update of evidence of the specific benefits of alcohol consumption
Creina S. Stockley, Health and Regulatory Information Manager, The Australian Wine Research Institute
Abbey, M., Kerry, N. Total and fractionated phenolic compounds of red wine inhibit low density lipoprotein. Stockley, C.S. ed. Medically is wine just another alcoholic beverage? Proceedings of the Wolf Blass Foundation International Wine and Health Conference, Sydney, Australia. Wolf Blass Foundation Inc, Adelaide, Australia; 1996: 3744p.
Abu-Amsha Caccetta R., Croft K.D., Beilin L.J. Puddey, I.B., 1999. Ingestion of red wine significantly increases plasma phenolic acid concentrations but does not acutely affect ex vivo lipoprotein oxidizability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 6774.
Abu-Amsha Caccetta R., Croft K.D., Beilin L.J. Burke V., Mori T.A., Puddey, I.B., 2000. Red wine does not reduce lipid peroxidative stress in smokers. Submitted for publication.
Abu-Amsha R., Croft K.D., Puddey I.B., Proudfoot J.M., Beiln L.J., 1996. Phenolic content of various beverages determines the extent of inhibition of human serum and low density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro: identification and mechanism of some cinnamic acid derivatives from red wine. Clinical Science, 91, 449458.
Ames, B., Shigenaga, M.K., Hagen, T.M. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 915-7922; 1993.
Aminbakhsh, A., Mancini, G.B.J. Chronic antioxidant use and changes in endothelial dysfunction: A review of clinical investigations. Canadian Journal of Cardiololgy, 15(8): 895903; 1999.
Andriambeloson, E., Kleschyov, A.L., Muller, B., Beretz, A., Stocklet, J.C., Adriantsitohaina, R. Nitric oxide production and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by wine polyphenols in rat aorta. British Journal of Pharmacology, 120: 10531058; 1997.
Andriambeloson, E.,Magnier, C., Haan-Archipoff, G., Lobstein, A., Anton, R., Beretz, A., Stocklet, J.C., Adriantsitohaina, R. Natural dietary polyphenolic compounds cause endothelium dependent vasorelaxtion in rat thoracic aorta. Journal of Nutrition, 128: 23242333; 1998.
Beilin LJ, Puddey IB, Burke V. Alcohol and hypertensionkill or cure? Journal of Human Hypertension,10(Suppl 2): S1S5; 1996.
Block, G. The data support a role for antioxidants in reducing cancer risk. Nutrition Reviews 50: 207213; 1992.
Block, G., Patterson, G., Subar, A. Fruit, vegetables and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutrition in Cancer 18(1), 1-29; 1992.
Boffetta, P., Garfinkel, L. Alcohol drinking and mortality among men enrolled in an American Cancer Society prospective study. Epidemiology, 1: 342348; 1990.
Carbonneau M-A., Leger C.L., Monnier L., Bonnet C., Michel F., Fouret G., Dedieu F., Descomps B., 1997. Supplementation with wine phenolic compounds increases the antioxidant capacity of plasma and vitamin E of low-density lipoprotein without changing the lipoprotein Cu2+-oxidizability: possible explanation by phenolic location. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 682690.
Celermajer, D.S., Sorenson, K.E., Bull, C., Robinson, J., Deanfield, J.E. Endothelium dependent dilation in the systemic arteries of asymptomatic subjects relates to coronary risk factors and their integration. Journal of the American College of Cardoiology, 24: 14681474; 1994.
Cishek, M.B., Galloway, M.T., Karim, M., German, J.B., Kappagoda, C.T. Effects of red wine on endothelium dependent relaxation in rabbits. Clinical Science, 93 507511; 1997.
Croft , K.D., Abu-Amsha, R., Puddey, I.B., Proudfoot, J.M., Beilin, L.J. The phenolic content of various beverages determines the extent of the inhibition of human serum and low density lipoprotein oxidation in vitroidentification and mechanism of action of some cinnamic acid derivatives from red wine. Stockley, C.S. ed. Medically is wine just another alcoholic beverage? Proceedings of the Wolf Blass Foundation International Wine and Health Conference, Sydney, Australia. Wolf Blass Foundation Inc, Adelaide, Australia; 1996: 3744p.
Cuevas, A.M., Guasch, V., Castillo, O., Irribarra, V., Mizon, C., San Martin, A., Strobel, P., Perez, D., Germain, A.M., Leighton, F. A high-fat diet induces and red wine counteracts endothelial dysfunction in human volunteers. Lipids, 35(2): 143148; 2000.
Davis JW, Phillips PE. The effect of ethanol on human platelet aggregation in vitro. Atherosclerosis 1970; 11:473477.
Djousse, L., Ellison, C., McLennan, C.E., Cupples, L.A., Lipinska, I., Tofler, G.H., Gokce, N., Vita, J.A. Acute effects of a high-fat meal with and without red wine on endothelial function in healthy subjects. American Journal of Cardiology, 84: 660664;1999.
de Rijke, Y.B., Demacker, P.N.M., Assen, N.A., Sloots, L.M., Katan, M.B., Stalenhoef, A.F.H. Red wine consumption does not effect oxidizability of low density lipoprotein in volunteers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63: 329334; 1996.
de Whalley, C,V., Rankin, S.M., Hoult, R.S., Jessup, W., Leake, D.S. Flavonoids inhibit the oxidative modification of low density liporproteins by macrophages. Biochemical Pharmacology, 39: 17431750; 1990.
Fielding, C.J., Fielding, P.E. Molecular physiology of reverse cholesterol transport. Journal of Lipid Research, 36: 211228; 1995.
Fiesch, M., Schwartz, A., Bohm, M., Effects of red and white wine on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of rat aorta and human coronary arteries. American Journal of Physiology, 275: H1183H1190; 1998.
Fitzpatrick, D.F., Hirschfield, S.L., Coffey, R.G. Endothelium dependent vasorelaxing activity of wine and other grape products. American Journal of Physiology, 265 H774H778; 1993.
Folts, J.D., Demrow, H.S., Slane, P.R. Two glasses of red but not white wine inhibits ex-vivo platelet aggregation and increases bleeding time in human volunteers. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 23: 66a (abstract); 1994.
Frankel EN, Kanner J, German JB, Parks E, Kinsella JE. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. The Lancet 1993; 341:4544557.
Frankel, E.N., Waterhouse, A.L., Teissedre, P.L. Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected Californian wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low density lipoprotein. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 43: 890894; 1995.
Fuhrman, B., Lavy, A., Aviram, M. Consumption of red wine with meals reduces the susceptibility of human plasma and low density-lipoprotein to lipid peroxidation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61: 549554; 1995.
Gaziano, J.M., Buring, J.E., Breslow, J.L., Goldhaber, S.A., Rosner, B., van Denburgh, M., Willett, W., Henneckens, C.H. Moderate alcohol intake, increased levels of high density lipoprotein and its subfractions, and the decreased risk of myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, 329: 18291834; 1993.
Gaziano, J.M., Gaziano, T.A., Glynn, R.J., Sesso, H.D., Ajani, U.A., Stampfer, M.J., Manson, J.E., Henneckens, C.H., Buring, J.E. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in the Physicians Health Study enrolment cohort. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 35 96105; 2000.
Grundy, S.M. Cholesterol and coronary heart disease: a new era. Journal of the American Medical Association, 256: 284958; 1986.
Halliwell, B, Aeschbach, R., Loliger, J., Aruoma, O.I. The characterisation of antioxidants. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 33: 601617; 1995.
Halliwell, B., Chirico, S. Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement, and significance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57 (Suppl 7): 15S25S; 1993.
Hendriks, H.F.J., Veenstra, J., Velthuis-te, Wierik, E.J.M., Scaafsma, G., Kluft, C. Effect of moderate dose of alcohol with evening meal on fibrinolytic factors. British Medical Journal, 308: 10031006; 1994.
Hertog, M.G.L, Kromhout, D., Aravanis, C., Blackburn, H., Buzina, R., Fidanza, F., Giampaoli, S., Jansen, A., Menotti, A., Nedeljikovic, S., Pekkarinen, M., simic, B.S., Toshima, H., Feskens, E.J.M., Hollman, P.C.H., Katan, M.B. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155: 381386; 1995.
Hertog, M.G.L., Hollman, P.C.H., van de Putte, B. Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines and fruit juices. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 412: 12421246; 1993.
Hoffmeister, H., Schelp, F.-P., Mensink, G.B.M., Dietz, R., Bohning, D. The relationship between alcohol consumption, health indicators and mortality in the German population. International Journal of Epidemiology, 28: 10661072; 1999.
Hunter, S. MacD., Bao, W., Berenson, G.S. Understanding the development of behaviour risk factors for cardiovascular disease in youth: The Bogalusa Heart Study. American Journal of Medical Science, 310(Suppl 1): S114S118; 1995.
Kanner J, Frankel E, Granit R, German B, Kinsella JE. Natural antioxidants in grapes and wines. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 42:6469; 1994.
Kerry, N.L., Abbey, M. Red wine and fractionated phenolic compounds prepared from red wine inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. Atherosclerosis 135: 93102; 1997.
Kinsella, J.E., Frankel, E.N., German, J.B., Kanner, J. Possible mechanisms for the protective role of antioxidants in wine and plant foods. Food Technology, 47: 8589; 1993.
Klatsky, A.L., Armstrong, M.A. Alcoholic beverage choice and risk of coronary artery disease mortality: do red wine drinkers fare best? American Journal of Cardiology, 71: 467469; 1993.
Klatsky, A.L., Armstrong, M.A., Kipp, H. Correlates of alcoholic beverage preference: traits of persons who choose wine, liquor or beer. British Journal of Addiction, 85: 12791289; 1990.
Kondo K, Matsumoto A, Kurata H. et al. Inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoproteins with red wine. The Lancet 1994; 344:1152.
Kovac, V.E., Alonso, M., Bourzeix, X., Revilla, E. Effect of several enological practices on the content of catechins and proanthocyanidins of red wines. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 40: 19531957; 1992.
Langer, R.D., Criqui, M.H., Reed, D.M. Lipoproteins and blood pressure as biologic pathways for the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on coronary heart disease. Circulation, 85: 910-915; 1992.
Leighton F., Cuevas A., Guasch V., Perez D.D., Strobel P., San Martin A., Urzua U., Diez M.S., Foncea R., Castillo O., Mizon C., Espinoza M.A., Urquiaga I., Rozowski J., Maiz A., Germain A. Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage and endothelial function in a diet and wine intervention study in humans. Drugs Experimental and Clinical Research, 25(2-3):133-141; 1999.
Maalej N, Demrow HS, Slane PR, Folts JD. Antithrombotic effects of flavonoids in red wine. In: Wine [ACS Symposium Series] 1997; 661: 247260.
Marmot, M., Brunner, E. Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: the status of the U-shaped curve. British Medical Journal, 303: 565568; 1991.
Maxwell, S., Cruikshank, A., Thorpe, G. Red wine and antioxidant activity in serum. The Lancet 344: 193194; 1994.
McMurtrey, K.D. Resveratrol in wine. Watkins, T.R. ed. Winenutritional and therapeutic benefits. American Chemical Society Symposium Series. Washington, American Chemical Society; 1997: 4455p.
Miyagi Y., Miwa K., Inoue H. Inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids in red wine and grape juice. American Journal of Cardiology, 80: 16271631; 1997.
Morrow J.D., Hill K.E., Burk R.F., Nammour T.M., Badr K.F., Roberts L.J.A series of prostaglandin F2-like compounds are produced in vivo in humans by a non-cyclooxygenase, free radical-catalyzed mechanism. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Science, 87, 93839387; 1990.
Munywyler, J., Henneckens, C.H., Buring, J.E., Gaziano, J.M. Mortality and light to moderate alcohol consumption after myocardial infarction. The Lancet, 352: 18821885; 1998.
Nigdikar, S.V., Williams, N.R., Griffin, B.A., Howard, A.N. Consumption of red wine polyphenols reduces the susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins to oxidation in vivo. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68: 258265; 1998.
Norrish, A., North, D., Yee, R.L., Jackson, R. Do cardiovascular disease risk factors predict all-cause mortality? International Journal of Epidemiology, 24(5): 908914; 1995.
Price, S.F., Watson, B.T., Valladao, M. Vineyard and winery effects on wine phenolicsflavonols in Oregon Pinot Noir. Stockley, C.S., Sas, A.N., Johnstone, R.S., Lee, T.H. eds. Proceedings of the ninth Australian wine industry technical conference, Adelaide, South Australia, 1995. Adelaide, Winetitles; 1995: 9397p.
Rand ML, Packham MA, Kinlough-Rathbone RL, Mustard JF. Effects of ethanol on pathways of platelet aggregation in vitro. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 59:383387; 1988.
Ramey, D., Bertrand, A., Ough, C.S., Singleton, V.L. Sanders, E. Effects of skin contact temperature on Chardonnay must and wine composition. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 37: 99106; 1986.
Renaud, S. (1996) The French Paradox. Stockley, C.S. ed Medically is wine just another alcoholic beverage? Proceedings of the Wolf Blass Foundation International Wine and Health Conference, Sydney, Australia. Wolf Blass Foundation Inc, Adelaide, Australia; 1996: 2126p.
Renaud S, Dumont E, Godsey F, Supplisson A, Thevenon C. Platelet functions in relation to coronary fat in farmers from two regions of France. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 40:518531; 1979.
Renaud S, Morazain R, Godsey F. et al. Platelet function in relation to diet and serum lipids in British farmers. British Heart Journal, 46:562570; 1981.
Renaud, S., de Lorgeril, M. The French Paradox: dietary factors for coronary heart disease. The Lancet 338: 15231526; 1992.
Renaud, S.C., Beswick, A.D., Fehily, M., Sharp, D.S., Elwood, P.C. Alcohol and platelet aggregation: the Caerphilly Prospective Heart Disease Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55: 10121017; 1992.
Renaud, S.C., Ruf, J.C. Effects of alcohol on platelet functions. Clinical Chimica Acta 246: 7789; 1996.
Revilla, E., Alonso, E., Kovac, V. The content of catechins and procyanidins in grapes and wines as affected by agroecological factors and technological practices. Watkins, T.R. ed. Winenutritional and therapeutic benefits. American Chemical Society Symposium Series. Washington, American Chemical society: 1997: 6979p.
Rice-Evans, C. Plant polyphenols: free radical scavengers or chain-breaking antioxidants? Biochemical Society Symposiums, 61: 103116; 1995.
Rice-Evans, C.A., Miller, N.J., Bolwell, P.G., Bramley, P.M. and Pridham, J.B. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radical Research, 22: 375383; 1995.
Ridker, P.M., Vaughan, D.E., Stampfer, M.J., Glynn, R.J., Hennekens, C.H. Association of moderate alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of endogenous tissue-type plasminogen activator. Journal of the American Medical.Association, 272: 929933; 1994.
Reilly M., Delanty N., Lawson J.A., Fitgerald G.A. Modulation of oxidant stress in vivo in chronic cigarette smokers. Circulation, 94, 1925; 1996.
Rimm, E.B., Klatsky, A., Grobbee, D., Stampfer, M.J. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine or spirits? British Medical Journal, 312: 731-736; 1996.
Rotondo, S., de Gaetano, G. Wine and cardiovascular disease: a European Project. Proceedings of the XXVth World Congress and 80th General Assembly of the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV), Paris, France. Office International de la Vigne et du Vin, Paris, France; 2000: 2332p. Seimann, E.H., Creasy, L.L. Concentration of phytoalexin resveratrol in wine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 43: 4952; 1992.
Sharpe, P.C., McGrath, L.T., McClean, E., Young, I.S., Archbold, G.P. Effect of red wine consumption on lipoprotein (a) and other risk factors for atherosclerosis. Queensland Journal of Medicine, 88: 101108; 1995.
Simonetti P, Brusamolino A, Pellegrini N. et al. Evaluation of the effect of alcohol consumption on erythrocyte lipids and vitamins in a healthy population. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 19:517-522; 1995.
Singleton VL. Grape and wine phenolics: background and prospects. In: Singleton VL, ed. Proceedings of Symposium: Grape and wine centennial, UC Davis, USA, 1980. University of California Press, 215-227; 1982.
Singleton, V.L. Trousdale, E.K. White wine phenolics: varietal and processing differences shown by HPLC. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 34: 2734; 1992.
Simons, L.A., McCallum, J., Friedlander, Y., Simons, J. Predictors of mortality in the prospective Dubbo study of Australian elderly. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 26: 4048; 1996.
Simons, L.A., McCallum, J., Friedlander, Y., Oritz, J., Simons, J. Moderate alcohol intake is associated with survival in the elderly: the Dubbo study. Medical Journal of Australia, 172: 121124; 2000.
Soleas, G.J., Diamandis, E.P., Goldberg, D.M. Wine as a biological fluid: history, production and role in disease prevention. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 11: 287313; 1997a.
Soleas, G.J., Dam, J., Carey, M., Goldberg, D.M. Towards the fingerprinting of wines: cultivar-related patterns of polyphenolic constituents in Ontario Wines. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 45: 38713880; 1997b.
Stein J.H., Keevil J.G., Wiebe D.A., Aeschlimann S., Folts J.D. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation, 100(10): 1050-1055; 1999.
St Leger, A.S., Cochrane, A.L., Moore, F. Factors associated with cardiac mortality in developed countries with particular reference to the consumption of wine. The Lancet 1: 10171020; 1979.
Stoclet, J.-C. Effect of wine polyphenols on vasomotricity. Proceedings of the XXVth World Congress and 80th General Assembly of the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV), Paris, France. Office International de la Vigne et du Vin, Paris, France; 2000: 175176p.
Struck M, Watkins T, Tomeo A, Halley J, Bierenbaum M. Effect of red and white wine on serum lipids, platelet aggregation, oxidation products and antioxidants: a preliminary report. Nutrition Research, 14:18111819; 1994.
Suh, I., Shaten, B.J., Cutler, J.A., Kuller, L.H. Alcohol use and mortality from coronary heart disease: The role of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Annals of Internal Medicine, 116: 881887; 1992.
Thun, M.J., Peto, R., Lopez, A.D., Monaco, J.H., Henley, J., Heath, C.W. Jr., Doll, R. Alcohol consumption and mortality among moddle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 337: 17051714; 1997.
Tsugane, S., Fahey, M.T., Sasaki, S., Baba, S. Alcohol consumption and all-cause and cancer mortality among middle-aged Japanese men: seven-year follow-up of the JPHC Study cohort I. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150: 12011207; 1999.
Whitehead, T.P., Robinson, D., Allaway, S., Syms, J., Hale, A. Effect of red wine ingestion on the antioxidant capacity of serum. Clinical Chemistry, 41(1): 3235; 1995.
Wieslisbach, V., Paccaud, F., Rickenbach, M., Gutzwiller, F. Trends in cardiovascular risk factors (19841993) in a Swiss region: results of three population studies. Preventative Medicine, 26: 523533; 1997.
Willett, W.C., Sacks, F., Trichopoulou, A., Drescher, G., Ferr-Luzzi, A., Helsey, E. Trichopoulos, D. The Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61: 1402S6S; 1995.
Vogel, R.A., Corrett, M.C., Gellman, J., Cholesterol, cholesterol lowering and endothelial function. Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases, 41 117136; 1998.
Witztum, J.L., Steinberg, D. Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis. Journal of Clinical Investigations, 88: 17851792; 1991.
Yuan, J.-M., Ross, R.K., Gao, Y.-T., Henderson, B.E., Yu, M.C. Follow-up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle-aged men in Shanghi, China. British Medical Journal, 314: 1823; 1997.