A study based in Chile aimed to compare the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MD) versus an Occidental diet (OD) on oxidative damage, in young adult volunteers, with or without the concomitant intake of red wine.
Source: Mediterranean diet and red wine protect against oxidative damage in young volunteers Atherosclerosis Available online 21 April 2010.
Forty-two omnivorous male students 20–27 years old were given either diet for 3 months. During the first and third month they received the prepared diets alone but during the second month they also had 240 ml/day of red wine. Blood and urine samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, and 90 days for analyses. A linear mixed effect model was used to compare the effect of both diets and wine, controlling values by baseline measurements.
Results showed that the Mediterranean diet increased plasma vitamin C, ß-carotene and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR). OD increased plasma vitamin E. Wine supplementation, analyzed combining both diet groups, raised plasma vitamin C, ß-carotene, uric acid, TAR, plasma and urinary polyphenols and decreased plasma vitamin E. Also wine intake increased concentration of red blood cell (RBC) glutathione while significantly decreasing plasma glutathione. In oxidative damage measurements OD group showed higher concentration of 8-hydroxy-2_-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes and plasma nitrotyrosine, when compared with MD group. Wine intake significantly decreased 8-OHdG and plasma nitrotyrosine in both diets, particularly in OD.
The study concludes that the study participants on a mediterranean diet showed better antioxidant defenses and less oxidative damage than those on OD. Moderate wine consumption improved antioxidant defenses in both groups and counteracted the oxidative damage observed with OD.