The impact of multiple healthy lifestyle factors on survival time is unclear. A study was to examined the differences in survival time associated with a healthy lifestyle vs a less healthy lifestyle.
The study consisted of 33 454 men (Cohort of Swedish Men) and 30 639 women (Swedish Mammography Cohort) aged 45 to 83 years and free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline. The healthy lifestyle factors included: (1) nonsmoking; (2) physical activity at least 150 min/week; (3) alcohol consumption of 0–14 drinks/week; (4) and healthy diet defined as a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet score above the median. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Laplace regression were used to estimate respectively hazard ratios of all-cause mortality and differences in survival time.
During follow-up from 1998 through 2014, 8,630 deaths among men and 6,730 deaths among women were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Each of the four healthy lifestyle factors was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and increased survival time. Compared with individuals with no or one healthy lifestyle factor, the multivariable hazard ratios of allcause mortality for individuals with all four health behaviours were 0.47 (95% 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.51) in men and 0.39 (95% CI 0.35-0.44) in women. This corresponded to a difference in survival time of 4.1 (95% CI 3.6-4.6) years in men and 4.9 (95% CI 4.3-5.6) years in women.
Adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours including moderate alcohol consumption may markedly increase lifespan, the authors conclude.
Source: Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on lifespan: two prospective cohorts. Larsson SC, Kaluza J, Wolk. A J Intern Med. 2017 May 31. doi: 10.1111/ joim.12637.